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ATENEO DI QUALITÀ ACCREDITATO ANVUR - FASCIA A

Description of the research topics for the 38th cycle (2022-2025)

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Here is a short description of seven proposed research themes. Applicants will be asked to select one or more topics during the oral colloquium.

Topic 1: Gravity currents in geologic media aiming to CO2 structural trapping

Contact: Sandro Longo

The study of gravity current (GC) dynamics in geologic media is motivated by CO2 sequestration, CO2-enhanced geothermal systems, hydrogen storage, contaminant migration, seawater intrusion, and mud invasion from drilling. GCs develop in both fractured and porous media; in existing formulations, there are one or more complicating factors that add realism to the domain description. However, the effect of macro-heterogeneities on the propagation of gravity current flow is far from being clarified and is a first knowledge gap to be addressed. In addition, many fluids in subsurface applications exhibit strongly non-Newtonian rheology; this poses additional challenges to effective modeling.

The doctoral research project aims to provide experimental validation of existing theoretical schemes for advancing Newtonian GCs when different loss mechanisms are present. A second goal is to apply a time-independent rheological model other than the power law to evaluate the impact of a more realistic non-Newtonian rheology. The project aims to study two possible configurations for GCs in porous or fractured media:

1) GC subject to losses from the substrate and edges;
2) GC produced by localized injection and subject to localized leakage.

These main scenarios incorporate several variations related to fluid rheology. To achieve these objectives, project activities will be divided into:

(a) Experimental modeling and rheometry, focusing on two prototype laboratory experiments and related rheometric measurements;
b) Theoretical modeling, based on the synergy between numerical and analytical methods and with emphasis on the prediction of the time scales scales associated with CO2 trapping.

Professor Sandro Longo and Prof. Luca Chiapponi will supervise the PhD candidate. Visit the List of publications of the research group and the Gallery for retrieving past experimental activities on this topic.

Topic 2: Conservazione programmata di grandi fabbriche storiche cupolate

Contact: Federica Ottoni

Le cupole storiche in muratura pongono interessanti questioni di ricerca, dal punto di vista dell’analisi finalizzata alla messa a punto di efficaci e compatibili interventi di consolidamento. La questione è ancora più complicata se si considera che, specialmente in Italia, tali strutture sono soggette a elevato rischio sismico.

La ricerca di soluzioni di consolidamento e restauro di queste interessanti strutture è la sfida da affrontare per la loro conservazione in questo tema di dottorato, approfondendo lo studio storico-costruttivo di alcune grandi fabbriche cupolate (tra le quali la cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore a Firenze), a partire dall’analisi del quadro fessurativo rilevato e delle tecniche costruttive storiche per proseguire con la definizione di opportune strategie di consolidamento. Obiettivo finale è la definizione di un piano di conservazione programmata della cupola di Santa Maria del Fiore attraverso strumenti digitali (H-BIM) per lo studio del comportamento e la programmazione degli interventi.

Un possibile candidato deve essere in possesso di un titolo di Laurea (magistrale) in Architettura o Ingegneria edile (con una buona votazione) e deve avere una conoscenza approfondita dei caratteri costruttivi degli edifici storici, delle teorie del Restauro oltre che dei principi base della statica. È richiesta una buona conoscenza della lingua inglese, sia parlata che scritta. Dato l’approccio interdisciplinare implicito in ogni ricerca di restauro, deve essere preparato per condurre una ricerca teorica e storica, che prevede anche la produzione di modelli geometrici. Deve anche essere in grado di lavorare in Gruppo, data la possibile cooperazione con altri enti e competenze (Opera del Duomo di Firenze).

Per ulteriori informazioni, contattare Federica Ottoni.

Restoration, strengthening intervention and stability analysis of great domed historical structures

Great historical masonry dome analysis constitutes a relevant issue in the field of architectural conservation, both in terms of their stability analysis and in setting up an efficient and reliable strengthening intervention strategy.

The issue is even more complicated if we consider that, especially in Italy, these huge structures are affected by a high seismic risk.

The research of restoration and strengthening of these interesting structures is the challenge of this doctoral theme, by deepening the historic-constructive study of some great domed structures (including Santa Maria del Fiore dome, in Florence) starting from their damage and from the surveyed crack pattern, as well as from their constructive and architectural features. The final aim is the definition of a planned conservation plan of the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore through digital instrument (H-BIM) able to study the behavior of the dome and to plan interventions.

A successful candidate should have good degree qualifications at master level (Architecture or Civil Engineering), and a basic knowledge of historical constructive types. (S)he should be able to demonstrate knowledge in the field of Restoration as well as in basic Statics. (S)he should have good written and spoken English. With a strongly interdisciplinary approach, (s)he must be prepared to conduct theoretic and historical research as well as modeling, and to carry out research as part of a team, with possible cooperation with Opera del Duomo (Florence).

For further information, please contact Federica Ottoni.

Topic 3: La digitalizzazione della filiera edilizia: il ruolo del BIM per la gestione dell’intervento sul costruito storico e contemporaneo

Contact: Chiara Vernizzi

È ormai noto e consolidato il ruolo del BIM nella gestione del progetto di architetture di nuova realizzazione, così come il suo utilizzo nella declinazione legata al costruito storico, come strumento di definizione e controllo degli aspetti geometrico-dimensionali e informativi derivanti da attività di rilievo integrato.

Proprio in questa dimensione, resta però molto da esplorare soprattutto nella implementazione e gestione degli aspetti informativi legati ai materiali esistenti, ma anche nella organizzazione di una serie di informazioni legate al ciclo di vita, fisico e funzionale, dell’edificio, che comprenda passato, presente e futuro, nell’ottica di definire e implementare molteplici aspetti di funzionalità del processo BIM applicato al costruito.

In questa logica, il tema di ricerca proposto intende partire degli esiti del progetto POR-FESR 2014-2020 (ASSE 1 Ricerca e Innovazione) eBIM: existing Building Information Modeling per la gestione dell’intervento sul costruito conclusosi nel febbraio 2022, individuando uno o più casi studio sui quali sperimentare nuovi tools funzionali volti non solo a definire il processo BIM come strumento ottimale per la gestione dell’intervento fisico sul costruito, ma anche e soprattutto come strumento di ottimizzazione e sistematizzazione degli aspetti conoscitivi complessivi e di gestione dell’edificio intesa non solo in ottica manutentiva ma soprattutto di valorizzazione funzionale, esplorando gli aspetti di visualizzazione e rappresentazione dei diversi tematismi trattati.

Ai/alle candidati/e è richiesta la conoscenza dei contenuti disciplinari e normativi relativi al BIM nonché di saper utilizzare in modo almeno un software BIM.

L’attività del/della candidato/a sarà coordinata dalla prof.ssa Chiara Vernizzi cui è possibile rivolgersi per avere ulteriori informazioni.

The digitalization of the building sector: the role of BIM for the management of interventions on historical and contemporary buildings

The role of BIM in the project management of new buildings is now well known and consolidated, as well as its use in the declination related to the historical building, as a tool for the definition and control of geometric-dimensional and informative aspects deriving from integrated survey activities.

It is precisely in this dimension, however, that much remains to be explored, especially in the implementation and management of information aspects linked to existing materials, but also in the organization of a lot of information linked to the physical and functional life cycle of the building, including past, present and future, with a view to defining and implementing multiple aspects of functionality of the BIM process applied to the built environment.

In this logic, the proposed research topic intends to start from the outcomes of the POR-FESR 2014-2020 project (ASSE 1 Research and Innovation) eBIM: existing Building Information Modeling for the management of the intervention on the built environment, ended in February 2022, identifying one or more case studies on which to test new functional tools aimed not only at defining the BIM process as an optimal tool for the management of the physical intervention on the built environment, but also and above all as a tool for optimizing and systematizing the overall cognitive and building management aspects, not only from a maintenance perspective but above all from a functional enhancement perspective, exploring the visualization and representation aspects of the various themes dealt with.

Candidates are required to have knowledge of the disciplinary and regulatory contents related to BIM and to be able to use at least one BIM software. The candidate's activity will be coordinated by Prof. Chiara Vernizzi , who can be contacted for further information.

Topic 4: Approfondimenti numerici e sperimentali di fenomeni di allagamento in ambiente rurale e urbano

Contact: Paolo Mignosa

La modellazione matematica della propagazione delle piene e della dinamica degli allagamenti, sia in ambiente rurale che urbano, viene normalmente affrontata tramite codici di calcolo che risolvono, in varie forme, le equazioni differenziali alle derivate parziali non lineari note come equazioni alle acque basse, sia nella formulazione 1D che 2D. Tuttavia, in certe situazioni, alcune ipotesi alla base delle equazioni, ed in particolare la distribuzione idrostatica delle pressioni sulla verticale e le piccole pendenze dell’alveo (o della valle) in cui si propaga l’allagamento, possono essere piuttosto lontane dalla realtà. Rientrano in questi casi, tra gli altri, le inondazioni che si possono sviluppare in valli alpine conseguenti a cedimenti di dighe, e quelle indotte dalla rottura di argini in corsi d’acqua di pianura, perlomeno nella zona in prossimità della rotta. In questi casi, una modellazione 3D con approcci euleriani o lagrangiani (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NK2T_ICe8v8) sarebbe preferibile, ma l’onere computazionale risulterebbe proibitivo (anche con modelli paralleli implementati su GPU) se si considera che le aree inondabili sono dell’ordine delle centinaia di km2 e le profondità idriche dell’ordine della decina di metri. In questi casi, l’uso di modelli non idrostatici è un modo efficiente e utile di affrontare il problema ad un costo computazionale molto minore rispetto a quello richiesto da modelli completamente 3D. Un altro aspetto connesso con questi fenomeni di inondazione catastrofici è la possibile distruzione di edifici e di infrastrutture (ponti, strade, ecc.) che la corrente incontra nella sua propagazione. Molto spesso ci si limita a valutare delle grandezze idrodinamiche, tipicamente combinazione di profondità e velocità, che possono dare indicazioni sulla stabilità di questi elementi strutturali, senza rimuoverli realmente dal dominio di calcolo. Una modifica dinamica della griglia di calcolo, che tenga conto della rimozione di questi elementi strutturali, porterebbe invece a risultati più realistici.

La ricerca si pone quindi l’obiettivo di approfondire queste tematiche, sia dal punto di vista numerico, implementando nel codice di calcolo PARFLOOD sviluppato dall’Università di Parma, sia dal punto di vista sperimentale, riproducendo in laboratorio alcuni casi di riferimento che verranno poi simulati numericamente per validare il modello. Ai/alle candidati/e sono richieste le conoscenze di base della teoria dei moti non stazionari a superficie libera ed una disponibilità ad acquisire competenze di utilizzo/ sviluppo di codici di calcolo. Il Professor Paolo Mignosa e l’Ing. Alessia Ferrari fungeranno da supervisore e co-supervisore del candidato. Alcune informazioni sulle attività del Gruppo di Ricerca sono reperibili al sito www.hylab.com

Numerical and experimental investigation of flooding phenomena in rural and urban areas

The mathematical modelling of flood propagation in rural and urban areas is typically carried out using numerical codes that solve with different approaches the so-called Shallow Water Equations (SWE), i.e. a set of 1D or 2D non-linear partial differential equations. However, some of the assumptions used to derive these equations, such as the hydrostatic pressure distribution and a small channel (or valley) slope, may be in some cases far from reality: e.g. when floods generated by dam failures propagate in Alpine valleys, and near a river levee breach in lowlands. In these cases, a 3D modelling based on Eulerian or Lagrangian approaches (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NK2T_ICe8v8) would be best suited, but the computational costs of these schemes would be prohibitive (even for models parallelized on GPUs), since the flooded areas are usually very large (> 100 km2) and water depths higher than tens of meters. Therefore, non-hydrostatic models manage to simulate these phenomena avoiding the high runtimes required by fully 3D models. A further issue related to these catastrophic events is that buildings and infrastructures may collapse during the flood propagation. Hydrodynamic quantities obtained by combining water depth and velocity values are usually evaluated to verify the stability of these structural elements, while keeping them in the computational domain. However, the dynamic removal of these structural elements from the computational grid would lead to more realistic results.

The research aims at investigating these phenomena from both a numerical and an experimental point of view, by implementing new features in the PARFLOOD code, which is a parallel 2D model developed at the University of Parma, and carrying out laboratory benchmarks useful to validate the numerical model. Candidates are required to have basic knowledge of the theory of free surface unsteady flow and a willingness to acquire skills in the use / development of numerical models Professor Paolo Mignosa and Eng. Alessia Ferrari will supervise and co-supervise the PhD candidate. Some information on the activities of the Research Group can be found at www.hylab.com

Topic 5: The maintenance of RC existing structures and infrastructures: on the study of the durability of reactive and proactive interventions of repairing

Contact: Beatrice Belletti

The ageing of Reinforced Concrete (RC) and Prestressed Concrete (PC) structures and infrastructures, coupled with insufficient maintenance and the rapid urbanization are increasing the vulnerability of public buildings, motorway and rail network, multi-service facilities, etc. Furthermore, climate changes are increasing, in terms of frequency and magnitude, environmental attack that induces corrosion damage. The maintenance of existing structures and infrastructures deals with the extension of the residual service life of infrastructure. The topic of the theme is contextualised in the framework of the sustainable development goals planned in the Agenda 2030 for sustainable development. The studies carried out in this project deal to ensure a sustainable development of our society by focusing in mitigating the effects of climate actions and ageing in existing structures and infrastructures.


The optimisation of maintenance’s strategies, in terms of durability of repairing and retrofitting interventions, will be achieved by numerical and experimental studies to contribute to decision-making processes. The doctoral research project aims to develop experimental test on corroded RC and PC members. Naturally corroded and artificially corroded members will be analysed both by experimental and numerical analyses.

Professor Beatrice Belletti will supervise the PhD candidate.

Topic 6: Fracture model of elastomeric multilayers and simulation of failure in tyres

Contact: Francesco Freddi

Accurate models to predict the mechanical behaviours of materials are in highly demand nowadays. Indeed, new high-performance industrial components have to be efficiently engineered and tested at different length scales, and the use of models capable of accurately describing their mechanical properties beyond the elastic stage can significantly enhance the design process and help in conceiving novel products with improved performance and reduced costs. In the industrial field of pneumatic tyres, the design and testing of the whole tyre structure presents significant challenges due to the lack of models capable of matching all aspects of the mechanical response, with few theories addressing very specific aspects. This deficiency is due either to the complex rheological behaviour of filled rubber, and to the complex geometry of a tyre, made of several elastomeric compounds packed in a multilayer structure.

Complexity is exacerbated by the necessity to reproduce failure phenomena, which, in fact, are extremely varied due to the heterogeneity of the structure and nonlinear physical properties of the materials. Within this framework, the present project aims at developing predictive numerical tool capable of describing the failure mechanisms observed in tyres under conditions of exceptional loading or fatigue. Its numerical implementation would represent an important step towards the design of a digital tyre twin, enabling virtual testing and simplifying the design process by allowing numerical optimization of the tyre structure, potentially leading to performance improvement as well as ecological benefits including better sustainability of the production process.

Topic 7: tbd

Contact: tbd

 

Topic 6: Fracture model of elastomeric multilayers and simulation of failure in tyres

Contact: Francesco Freddi

Accurate models to predict the mechanical behaviours of materials are in highly demand nowadays. Indeed, new high-performance industrial components have to be efficiently engineered and tested at different length scales, and the use of models capable of accurately describing their mechanical properties beyond the elastic stage can significantly enhance the design process and help in conceiving novel products with improved performance and reduced costs. In the industrial field of pneumatic tyres, the design and testing of the whole tyre structure presents significant challenges due to the lack of models capable of matching all aspects of the mechanical response, with few theories addressing very specific aspects. This deficiency is due either to the complex rheological behaviour of filled rubber, and to the complex geometry of a tyre, made of several elastomeric compounds packed in a multilayer structure.

Complexity is exacerbated by the necessity to reproduce failure phenomena, which, in fact, are extremely varied due to the heterogeneity of the structure and nonlinear physical properties of the materials. Within this framework, the present project aims at developing predictive numerical tool capable of describing the failure mechanisms observed in tyres under conditions of exceptional loading or fatigue. Its numerical implementation would represent an important step towards the design of a digital tyre twin, enabling virtual testing and simplifying the design process by allowing numerical optimization of the tyre structure, potentially leading to performance improvement as well as ecological benefits including better sustainability of the production process.

Longo proposta dottorale immagine 2
proposta dottorale Ottoni
proposta dottorale Vernizzi
immagine 1 Mignosa dottorato
immagine 1 Mignosa dottorato
proposta dottorale Belletti
proposta dottorale Freddi
Pubblicato Domenica, 1 Maggio, 2022 - 19:14 | ultima modifica Sabato, 14 Maggio, 2022 - 09:37